In Part 1 of this series, we reviewed the Microsoft’s ESE (Extensible Storage Engine), and discussed the new storage enhancements that were introduced in Exchange 2010.
In Part 2, we continued our journey through the Exchange 2010 storage enhancements by exploring the concepts of logical and physical changes to the Microsoft ESE database.
In the final part of this series, we are going to explore some very clever changes Microsoft has made that significantly improves system performance. In this article we are going to take a look at the following areas:
- Read/write Coalescing and page compression
- Cache compression
- Online maintenance
Read/write coalescing and page compressions:
In Part 1 of this series, we noted that database page has been changed from 8 KB in Exchange 2007 to 32 KB in Exchange 2010. How does this change improve performance? Let’s compare how Exchange 2007 and 2010 would handle a 20 KB email item. Exchange 2007 would require 3 separate IOs to read this single email item in comparison to one read operation in Exchange 2010. Please see the following diagram to better understand this concept.
To better understand why this change is significant, it is helpful to look back to how data was previously managed in legacy versions of Exchange. Exchange 2003 was much like an infant in that it basically did whatever it needed when it wanted in regards to the database. Most babies eat, sleep, relieve themselves and play on their own schedule, much to their parent’s dismay. That pretty much sums up how Exchange 2003 used to write, read or delete items to the database. When Exchange 2007 was introduced, it was evident that the technologies had grown up. This progression has naturally continued in Exchange 2010.
One big area of improvement is that Exchange 2010 has a much larger page size and manages the read/write operations more efficiently. For example, when a read or write operation is received, the size of the item is compared to the page size to determine if the operation should be committed or to wait to gather more changes so that a single IO can be used. The following diagrams show how Exchange 2010 is much more efficient that Exchange 2007.
Notice how the same Read operation takes 3 transactions in Exchange 2007 as opposed to a single operation in Exchange 2010. The diagram below highlights how a Write process is handled more efficiently in Exchange 2010.
Now that Exchange 2010 has a larger page size, what happens for smaller pages in the cache? Since the cache is in memory and not on the Hard disk, you might assume that the whole 32 KB page would be used and this would result in a waste of memory. The engineers at Microsoft thought about this problem when introducing designing Exchange 2010 and created a nice solution. When a page is not fully utilized, Exchange uses cache compression. For example a page with 7 KB of data will be compressed in memory so that the extra space is not wasted. The diagram below graphically represents this concept.
In previous versions of Exchange, the maintenance of database was handled nightly by the exchange server. This included page purges and the handling of mailboxes that were deleted.
Due to the many storage related enhancements that were introduced in Exchange 2010, Microsoft wanted to assure that the detection of faults, logically or physically, were detected and handled as soon as possible. For this reason, the way Exchange maintained its databases was changed. Instead of waiting until the evening to perform these important tasks, Exchange now performs maintenance constantly.
You can enable a special option on the database and enable 24/7 database maintenance on the database. This new feature also recovers white space on the fly. This also really eliminates the need to perform off line defragmentations of the database. It also allows the database to recover from logical or physical errors at the database level in real time.
The above diagrams show the new features and architectural changes that occurred to the OLD and thus became OLD2, OLD provides Background/throttled process that maintains contiguity of “Sequential Tables” by rebuilding leaf level of B+ Trees, thus gives the Exchange 2010 the ability to get a defragmented database like below:
The above diagrams shows a live view that compares the Exchange 2010 DB vs. 2007 fragmentation level, it is clear that Exchange 2010 has maintenance over the older technology.
Talking about storage in Exchange 2010 never ends. I like reading and writing about it but at some time it should stop. I hope that I was able to give you a solid view of the Exchange 2010 storage architecture and its new features. In my next article, I will talk about certificate consolidation and considerations for Exchange/OCS deployments. I hope that you liked this series and that you will keep visiting our blog for cool blog entries from fellow ESE writers.